Vergleich verschiedener Energiespeichersysteme (link)

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Executive summary
The general objective of this document is to make the state of the art about the various
possibilities of energy storage that could be used in stand-alone photovoltaic (SAPV) systems.
The document describes the main features of different storage technologies and emphasizes
the main advantages and drawbacks of each. The baseline of the study is the lead-acid
battery, which is widely used in many applications. Other potential technologies are then
studied to assess their characteristics and performances and evaluate their possible use in
SAPV systems instead of classical lead-acid batteries:
• Lithium batteries,
• Nickel batteries,
• Metal-air batteries,
• Sodium-sulphur batteries,
• Supercapacitors,
• Flywheels,
• Redox flow batteries,
• Fuel cells-electrolysers,
• Compressed air storage,
• Superconducting magnetic energy storage,
• Pumped hydro storage,
• Thermal energy storage.
In the particular case of SAPV systems there may be some potential alternatives but they have
to face limits (cost, complexity, size of installation, impact on environment, etc.) that seem to
hinder today a large dissemination on the market and the replacement of lead-acid batteries in
the near future.
The main conclusions are:
Lithium batteries: have good performance suitable for SAPV systems but a cost decrease is
needed to make them a realistic alternative to lead-acid batteries.
Nickel-cadmium batteries: may presently compete with lead-acid batteries as a mass
product in all the fields where the latter are used (even if they have lower technical
performance in terms of self-discharge and efficiency) but the cost of this technology still
prevents a large dissemination. They may be preferred in cold climate conditions.
Metal-air batteries: have lower technical performance especially in terms of self-discharge,
lifetime and efficiency.
Sodium-sulphur batteries: have rather good technical characteristics (except specific power)
but cost and safety are still a limitation of their use in SAPV systems.
Supercapacitors: should only be used for high power short term storage duration (very low
specific energy, strong self-discharge and high cost).
Flywheels: should only be used for high power short term storage duration (cost and selfdischarge
limit their use in SAPV systems).
Redox flow batteries: have rather good technical and economic characteristics; size and selfdischarge
in connected mode make them inappropriate for SAPV systems.
Fuel cell-electrolyser: are not well suited for stand-alone PV applications due to low
efficiency, short lifetime and high costs.
Compressed air systems: are still a bit costly compared to lead-acid batteries; energy
efficiency and self-discharge (when connected) need to be improved as well.
SMES: are not really suited for stand-alone PV applications, but rather for large gridconnected
Pumped hydro storage systems: are not really competitive with lead-acid batteries due to
their low energy efficiency, complexity and costs.
TES: are not really suited for stand-alone PV applications, but rather for large grid-connected
The main conclusion of this report is that today no energy storage technology is able to
replace lead-acid batteries in the near future in the category of stand-alone PV applications
due to economic and/or technical limitations.
The document is composed of five parts: the three first ones analyse the characteristics,
performances and limits of rechargeable batteries, short time storage devices (filters) and
other storage technologies, the fourth one makes a global comparison and the last one deals
with their specific use in SAPV systems.
Keywords: storage, photovoltaic, technologies, energy


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